Topological dynamics is a branch of the theory of dynamical systems in which qualitative, asymptotic properties of dynamical systems are studied from the viewpoint of general topology.
In mathematics, topological dynamics is a branch of the theory of dynamical systems in which qualitative, asymptotic properties of dynamical systems are studied from the viewpoint of general topology.
The central object of study in topological dynamics is a topological dynamical system, i.e. a topological space, together with a continuous transformation, a continuous flow, or more generally, a semigroup of continuous transformations of that space. The origins of topological dynamics lie in the study of asymptotic properties of trajectories of systems of autonomous ordinary differential equations, in particular, the behavior of limit sets and various manifestations of "repetitiveness" of the motion, such as periodic trajectories, recurrence and minimality, stability, non-wandering points. George Birkhoff is considered to be the founder of the field. A structure theorem for minimal distal flows proved by Hillel Furstenberg in the early 1960s inspired much work on classification of minimal flows. A lot of research in the 1970s and 1980s was devoted to topological dynamics of one-dimensional maps, in particular, piecewise linear self-maps of the interval and the circle.
Unlike the theory of smooth dynamical systems, where the main object of study is a smooth manifold with a diffeomorphism or a smooth flow, phase spaces considered in topological dynamics are general metric spaces (usually, compact). This necessitates development of entirely different techniques but allows extra degree of flexibility even in the smooth setting, because invariant subsets of a manifold are frequently very co plicated topologically (cf limit cycle, strange attractor); additionally, shift spaces arising via symbolic representations can be considered on an equal footing with more geometric actions. Topological dynamics has intimate connections with ergodic theory of dynamical systems, and many fundamental concepts of the latter have topological analogues (cf Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy and topological entropy).
In mathematics, general topology or point-set topology is the branch of topology which studies properties of topological spaces and structures defined on them. It is distinct from other branches of topology in that the topological spaces may be very general, and do not have to be at all similar to manifolds. General topology provides the most general framework where fundamental concepts of topology such as open/closed sets, continuity, interior/exterior/boundary points, and limit points could be defined.
Main article: Topological Space
A topology is a pair (X,?) consisting of a set X and a collection ? of subsets of X, called open sets, satisfying the following three axioms:
The union of open sets is an open set.
The finite intersection of open sets is an open set.
X and the empty set ? are open sets.
General topology grew out of a number of areas, most importantly the following:
the detailed study of subsets of the real line (once known as the topology of point sets, this usage is now obsolete)
the introduction of the manifold concept
the study of metric spaces, especially normed linear spaces, in the early days of functional analysis.
General topology assumed its present form around 1940. It captures, one might say, almost everything in the intuition of continuity, in a technically adequate form that can be applied in any area of mathematics.