In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives. (This is in contrast to ordinary differential equations, which deal with functions of a single variable and their derivatives.) PDEs are used to formulate problems involving functions of several variables, and are either solved by hand, or used to create a relevant computer model.
PDEs can be used to describe a wide variety of phenomena such as sound, heat, electrostatics, electrodynamics, fluid flow, or elasticity. These seemingly distinct physical phenomena can be formalised identically in terms of PDEs, which shows that they are governed by the same underlying dynamic. Just as ordinary differential equations often model one-dimensional dynamical systems, partial differential equations often model multidimensional systems. PDEs find their generalisation in stochastic partial differential equations.
Partial differential equations (PDEs) are equations that involve rates of change with respect to continuous variables. The configuration of a rigid body is specified by six numbers, but the configuration of a fluid is given by the continuous distribution of the temperature, pressure, and so forth. The dynamics for the rigid body take place in a finite-dimensional configuration space; the dynamics for the ?uid occur in an infinite-dimensional con?guration space. This distinction usually makes PDEs much harder to solve than ordinary differential equations (ODEs), but here again there will be simple solutions for linear problems. Classic domains where PDEs are used include acoustics, fluid flow, electrodynamics, and heat transfer.
Although the issue of existence and uniqueness of solutions of ordinary differential equations has a very satisfactory answer with the Picard–Lindelof theorem, that is far from the case for partial differential equations. The Cauchy–Kowalevski theorem states that the Cauchy problem for any partial differential equation whose coefficients are analytic in the unknown function and its derivatives,
as a locally unique analytic solution. Although this result might appear to settle the existence and uniqueness of solutions, there are examples of linear partial differential equations whose coefficients have derivatives of all orders (which are nevertheless not analytic) but which have no solutions at all: see Lewy (1957). Even if the solution of a partial differential equation exists and is unique, it may nevertheless have undesirable properties. The mathematical study of these questions is usually in the more powerful context of weak solutions.
Mathematics (from Greek mathema, "knowledge, study, learning") is the abstract study of topics encompassing quantity, structure, space, change, and other properties; it has no generally accepted definition.
Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932), David Hilbert (1862–1943), and others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. When those mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature.
Through the use of abstraction and logical reasoning, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity for as far back as written records exist. Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements. Mathematics developed at a relatively slow pace until the Renaissance, when mathematical innovations interacting with new scientific discoveries led to a rapid increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that has continued to the present day.